Sizing in fruits
Contract of fruits
Is the process of turning the flower into a fruit After the fertilization and fertilization begins a new stage is the stage of the fruit and inside the seed or seed at the beginning of that stage occurs withering of the petals and falling and then falling pens, including carrying Mayas drought after having played.
The transformation from the state of flower to the fruit in the so-called decade of several hours, as in the flowers of mango to several days, as in the flowers of tomatoes and the fruits to form to divide the cells of the wall of the ovaries and this needs a hormone tonic obtained by the walls of the three ovaries known as the outer wall Exocarp, Mesocarp and the middle Endocarp One of the pollen is a source of the richness of laxin or the formation of the auxin precursor, the amino acid tryptophan, which turns into the indole acetic acid, which is the phytoxin necessary to activate the division of cells and does not play the role of the axine role, but also shared with Gibberlin Cytokinin.
Then comes the role of the seed when formed from the zygote after the completion of the fertilization process and given the availability of amino acids and organic acids and sugars from the paper to the fruit of the compost, more growth hormones are formed, such as Aloksen and algebra and cytokine necessary to divide the differentiation and synthesis of embryonic cells and the seed becomes the source of these hormones Which leads to leakage Release to the wall of the ovary, which helps to complete the process of division and elongation of cells and then the development of the fruit until it reached the stage of full growth has been found that the more seeds the seed size has increased since there is a relationship between seed distribution and form For fruits in some species.
It means the contract of fruits without fertilization of the ovary and the formation of seeds without seeds is often due to defect in the fetal sac is known as the contract Bkri Parthenocarpy distinct from the Stemospermocarpy, where the fertilization and fertilization but the fetus is growing and dying with the continuation of the walls of the ovary in the growth of fruit formation, and spread this phenomenon in several strains Especially those with several eggs for each fruit, such as bananas, figs and pineapples.
There are several cases of bacillary contract
The formation of fruits without pollination of flowers and without fertilization is called vegetal bovine contractions such as tomatoes, orange, navel, banana and pineapple.
The formation of the fruits by encouraging the pollination without the arrival of the tube of the vaccine for the ovary, such as watermelon and called the bactericidal activation may occur when the activation of the visit of insects to the flower or the flattening of flowers or even the impact of dust atoms and can encourage that type of contract using the following.
Control of environmental conditions such as exposing plants to low temperatures with high light intensity. The pollination rate is low under these conditions, such as in tomatoes, or encouraging the disappearance of the fetus by exposing the fruits to frost or low heat, such as apples and pears.
Encouraging bactericidal contract using growth regulators Rasha on plants with alginate as in tomatoes and pepperlene as in grapes.
In the cases of the contract of Bakri characterized by the ovulation of flowers and fruits later increase in the level of hormonal than the normal seed of the seed is driven by this high hormonal level to continue growth and non-fall, while in seed species fall fruit if the failure of fertilization and fertilization or when the atrophy of the fruit of the fruit and the equivalent of those flowers with hormones from Exogenous exfoliation may compensate for the absence of the embryo allowing the ovarian fruit to continue to grow.
Internal hormonal contract and balance
Axin and contract
Hormonal secretion begins in the fruit with the first step towards the composition of the fruit, ie, when the pollen is transferred to the flower mussem, where the pollen tube is grown in pen tissue. The pollen contains the ethylene and gibberelene phytohromones that activate and become effective when germinating the vaccine. In the tissues of the pen, the new structure of the axin activates the ovarian tissue and the oxyin level rises significantly in the tissue surrounding the developing vaccine capsule.
Fertilization occurs and the endosperm is divided rapidly and the fetus grows. The oxinian level increases to increase its output in the endosperm and fetus tissue, as it is a monstrous tissue. The fruit content of the axin after the decade is related to the growth and development of the seeds in the seed fruits closely, but depends on how long the fruit continues to grow and develop, Its first growth after the decade at the level of Oxyin it and the reduction of this level fall fruit seed or even the fall of Venus before that failed in the decade.
Alaxin delays the flowering of the flowers so that the period between the time of preparation for the pollination and the time of the fall and thus increase the chance and the possibility of fertilization and the natural contract to a better degree, the treatment of the Waxin “lanolin dough 1% of the improvement of watermelon contract.
Although it is possible to obtain the fruits of the Bakri contract after the treatment of flaxseed for many species of Alaxin, but this can not be generalized it is established that it is not possible to obtain the fruits of bacilli in more than 80% of the seed species must be available natural natural heritage to form the fruits of the decade In other words, the chance of occurrence of the bacterial contract increases in the species that hold some of the bacaria varieties, especially if treated with hormonal growth organizations.
Axin is not the main role in driving the fruit to growth and development, but also involves other hormones such as Gelberlin.
It was found that the level of oxin in the seed fruit is higher in the flower stage and for several days after the occurrence of the contract directly than the seed fruit of the same plant type, and the percentage of fruits falling after the contract a day or two in seed fruit as a result of the reduction of the axin at this time, regardless About the reason for its decline.
The growth of the seed has a great effect on the growth and increase of the fruit, where the fruit seed is provided by diffusible auxin. For example, the fruit of the collected chilk, its size depends on the Achenes, which provide the tissue of the thymus with the toxin, grow and grow with the fruit. The absence of one of the amino acids inhibits the supply of the tectonic Thus preventing tissue growth in this part and the fruit looks irregular. It was possible to replace the yeast by placing the nano-lactone dough containing 2 Naphthoxy acetic acid at a concentration of 100 ppm. The fruit grows as if all the fruits were present.
And the number of seeds in the fruit of a large role in increasing the level of oxen and then the size of the fruit is related to the number of seeds by it was found that the content of the large fruit was five times what the small fruits and that fell in the first period of the fall of the fall and the level of the eucalyptus fruit was held without vaccination In the fruits that were held after fertilization and fertilization and then fell in the first precipitation and interpreted on the basis that the quantities of oxin absolute fruit is not the control of the fall or not, but determined by the level of the eucalyptus fruit and its relationship to the level of the oxen fruit adjacent to the cluster in the sense that when producing some fruits N fertilized flowers and some of the flowers pollinate the big difference between the level of failure It is observed that the deterioration of the fetus in peaches and cherries affects the size of the fruit and the date of maturity and may cause death or atrophy to fall fruit while fetal atrophy at the last stages of growth pericarp may increase the growth of the fruit if not Has no effect.
Source of oxin fruit
In the American Concorde grapes, the growth of neocella was associated with cell division and amplification for one week after flowering by its activity in the formation of most of the axin with the seed. Then the cellular endosperm appears on the following day after the decade and thus begins Another source of the toxin is the seed Even when the neoclassical source gradually decreases and the endosperm is increased and the embryo begins to divide after 14 days of the decade and then grows slowly until its maximum growth reaches 25 days of the decade. It participates late in the production of the axin. The seed covers also have a role next to the endosperm. It is believed that the endosperm is the center of the production of xenon and the production reaches its peak when the transformation of Free nuclear into cellular endosperm.
The IAA, IBA, NAA, Jabrelin and Cytokinin were active from the growth of the pollen grain and thus increased contractions. The concentrations used were narrow. Is high from 1 to 50 ppm, while high concentrations of pollen grain are prevented and this is used in breeding programs to obtain hybrids rather than to improve the contract.
Jubrelin and the contract
The seed of the fruit is also supplied by the globulin necessary for the growth of the fruit tissue. The lining of the ovary walls on the phyto hormones helps it to play the role of the receptor in the relationship Sink / Source Relation, which leads to the attraction of the nutrients formed in the leaves to be stored in the fruit cells that are formed. For the events of the bacillary contract. The concentrations used are characterized by a wide range if the effect is within the range of 10 – 200 ppm in the payment of flowers treated for the bacillary contract. The results show that the mixing of more than Jibrilin gives a greater effect on the formation of the bacteriological contract in the sub-fruits.
The varieties differ in their response. While there is no improvement in the Golden Delicious contract of apples after the equation with nine jibrilins, the contract increased 40-80% after the treatment with 100-800 ppm in the Lombartacol villa. Normal after treatment with a mixture of 2,4-D-2,4,5-T -NAA-GA3 at a concentration of 20 ppm.
And the correct timing of the treatment has a great impact on the success of the decade of virginity or not and the earlier in use, the greater the number of flowers that are held Bakriya, which should be done with the relaxation of grape clusters, for example, or grains, as delay treatment does not achieve the desired increase in the size of the grain so the best time for the equation is after Falling flowers that failed in the decade directly.
Seed varieties, or the majority of them, appear to be a response to GA3 treatment, but may cause damage such as the detachment of grains, low yields and poor growth of urban branches in the year following treatment as a result of the delay in maturation of the tree.
Cytokinein and Contract
The presence of cytokinin in bovine banana fruits was observed, while the bacillus contained a small amount of cytokinein or even its total absence. The treatment with BA GA3 mixture gave the bacterial nodule increase in bananas.
Growth and Contract Constraints: Treatment of CCC on seed grapes 1-3 weeks before flowering at a concentration of 10 – 100 ppm resulted in an increase in the number of fine fruits by about 20%. The increase in the number of stray grains was associated with an increase in the concentration of cyclosyl used.
Proportion of fruits
The ratio of the number of flowers to the total number of flowers is one of the determinants of the crop of any commercial plant.
There are several factors that determine the percentage of the contract
Insufficient insemination. Low lighting and low temperatures affect floral composition, which reduces the efficiency of self-pollination. The weather conditions affect the length of time when the water is ready to be pollinated. Less time is available to receive the pollen and create the environment suitable for the germination of pollen and the pollination is increased or less sterile under certain environmental conditions of the efficiency of pollination.
It is found that the flight prevents the movement of food outside the branches and thus increase the number of fruit on the branch and causing the lack of water quantity Which is available to the plant also on the low proportion of the contract, if the plant reached the extent of water depletion Vartkhtr walls of its cells and stop the division may lead to sacrifice some small fruit Cain In order to maintain the water balance, and may be falling flowers and small fruits stoked as a result of hormonal imbalance due to lack of hormones required to complete the physiological processes of the development of maturity and maturity and this hormonal balance necessary for fruits is affected by weather conditions of temperature and relative humidity and wind and other hormones can be used Rasha to raise the proportion of contract as Naphthalene, acetic acid NAA and phenoxy compounds such as 2,4-D.
The period of cell division during the growth of fruits after the contract of Anthesis from one plant to another, while 4-8 days in zucchini, be 4-9 weeks in oranges and continue dividing the cells until the completion of growth and grow most types of fruits according to the growth curve known as the form of S called Sigmoid curve Oranges, tomatoes, peas, cucumbers and other fruits follow a double sigmoid curve, such as apricots, plums, plums, olives and figs.
And grapes where the fruits are characterized by two periods of rapid growth between the period of slow growth is the first stage of rapid growth of the ovaries and its contents except the endocarb and rapid growth of the endospram and fetus. Followed by a second rapid growth stage of the mesocarp layer due to the size of the cells and not to increase their preparation until full growth.
Food is transported during the growth of fruits from nearby leaves capable of metabolism to fruits. Therefore, we find that the growth of fruits accompanied by an increase in size and weight. However, in some cases, such as what is found in apples, we find that the increase in size exceeds the weight by 25% as a result of the formation of air spaces between the cells of fruits. In grapes, the opposite occurs, where weight is increased by the accumulation of soluble solids in fruits.
Complete growth and maturity of fruits
Growth is complete
Is the arrival of the fruit for a physiological age is the end of the fruit growth curve fruit reaches the final size and if harvested fruit at that stage can be away from the mother to continue in the stages of development to reach maturity without lack of fruit qualities in terms of quality and taste and then we find that the fruit prepared for the transition to maturity In the sense that all the materials involved in the maturation reactions have been processed and the enzymes that will be done have been produced and will begin to work.
It is a stage in which changes in color, hardness, taste and smell to make the fruit suitable for consumption and suitable for picking, but there are exceptions, as some fruits do not mature until after picking them Kalzbdip, and accelerate the harvest of some of the fruits such as apples, banana and papat. It should be borne in mind that harvesting before the fruit reaches the stage of full growth prevents it from reaching maturity efficiently, thus reducing its quality and its fitness to eat.
After maturity, the fruit enters the age of aging and the beginning of its physiological life. Maturation is associated with changes such as the loss of hardness by dissolving the adhesion between the cells (calcium bactate), the meddlala, the transformation of starch to sugary matter, the loss of the tannin and phenolic substances, the formation of color pigments and the formation of responsible volatile gases For the smell and flavor and change in the rate of respiration and therefore the change in the content of the fruit of the acids and the ratio of sugars to the acid determines the taste characteristic of the fruit.